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# Aerospace Blockset

## Indicated Airspeed from True Airspeed Calculation

This model shows how to compute the indicated airspeed from true airspeed using the Ideal Airspeed Correction block. The Aerospace Blockset™ blocks are indicated in red.

True airspeed is the airspeed that we would read ideally (and the airspeed value easily calculated within a simulation). However there are errors introduced through the pitot-static airspeed indicators used to determine airspeed. These measurement errors are density error, compressibility error and calibration error. Applying these errors to true airspeed will result in indicated airspeed. (the ideal airspeed correction block can handle the density error and compressibility error)

Density Error -- It is a fact that an airspeed indicator reads lower than true airspeed at higher altitudes. This is due to lower air density at altitude. When the difference or error in air density at altitude from air density on a standard day at sea level is applied to true airspeed, it results in equivalent airspeed (EAS). Equivalent airspeed is true airspeed modified with the changes in atmospheric density which affect the airspeed indicator.

Compressibility Error -- Air has a limited ability to resist compression. This ability is reduced by an increase in altitude, an increase in speed, or a restricted volume. Within the airspeed indicator, there is a certain amount of trapped air. When flying at high altitudes and higher airspeeds, calibrated airspeed (CAS) is always higher than equivalent airspeed. Calibrated airspeed is equivalent airspeed modified with compressibility effects of air which affect the airspeed indicator.

Calibration Error -- The airspeed indicator has static vent(s) to maintain a pressure equal to atmospheric pressure inside the instrument. Position and placement of the static vent along with angle of attack and velocity of the aircraft will determine the pressure inside the airspeed indicator and thus the amount of calibration error of the airspeed indicator. Needless to say, calibration error is specific to a given aircraft design. A calibration table is usually given in the pilot operating handbook (POH) or in other aircraft specifications. Using this calibration table, the indicated airspeed (IAS) is determined from calibrated airspeed by modifying it with calibration error of the airspeed indicator. Indicated airspeed is displayed in the cockpit instrumentation.